Hypernym examples meaning with Characteristics (2024)

A Hypernymis a term that is used to describe or encompass other more specific terms. It is a more extensive way of referring to something, in order to be understood in conversations or explanations more broadly. For example, a Hypernym (Countries) followed by four hyponyms would be Countries: Mexico, Spain, Colombia, Argentina. Hypernym meaning and examples

This linguistic technicality, pertaining to structural semantics, came into being around the middle of the 20th century.Although its concept and use were understood long before, until that time its name was not assigned.

Etymologically it is composed of the prefix “hyper” and the suffix “ónimo”.The first is a word that in most Indo-European languages ​​means “above” or “above others.”“Ónimo”, meanwhile, means “name” or any word derived or synonymous with it, according to its Indo-European equivalence.

According to their etymology, then, we can define hypernym as “those names that are above other names”, which cover and encompass them as if they were an umbrella or an ozone layer.

The names that the hypernym receives, those that it receives under yes, are called “hyponyms”, because “they are below it”.

Hypernyms allow the expressor to be understood more easily when the lyrical receiver does not have a wide bank of words, as well as allowing the latter to more easily grasp what is being communicated to him.

Characteristics Hypernym meaning and examples

Hypernym as a linguistic resource have a series of peculiarities that must be taken into account when using them. Several of these peculiarities will be shown below:

All his features are contained in his hyponyms

Each one of the hyponyms sheltered under a hypernym contains the basic features of the latter. These distinctive qualities are what generate the links that allow us to link both terms and relate them to each other, one as the one that is above everything and the other as the one that is protected by the superior.

Save unnecessary anaphora

Although anaphoras are a widely used poetic resource —the product of the repetition of words to achieve a certain rhythm in poetic composition—, when they result from a lack of knowledge of language, synonyms and hypernyms, they are not well regarded.

hypernyms, in written production, greatly save unnecessary repetitions of words. These are a widely used resource, especially for the enrichment of the writing of some literary genre.

They help the good communicational and cognitive performance

As is well known, an important part of intelligence lies in the proper use of language. hypernyms are a key piece in the development of the communicational brilliance of each individual.

As far as speeches are concerned, it is also a tool for relaxed use by speakers, since it facilitates the ability to address large groups without letting minorities escape, accommodating all attendees.

A hypernym can be a hyponym at the same time Hypernym meaning and examples

This is more common than it seems, and is given by the hierarchical relationship that is formed between certain words. For example, the word “fruit” is a hypernym that encompasses all fruits (apple, grapes, pears, mangoes, among others), but at the same time it is a hyponym of the word “food”.

As well as the example presented, there are many others in the Spanish language that will be shown later.As explained above, all this responds to the steps that words can occupy within the communicative process.

They always start from a “meaning” to arrive at a “signifier”

This refers, in general terms, from a general idea to one of the many specific words it contains.As the onomasilogy puts it.

Of course, it must be taken into account, and especially in Spanish and its large number of dialect variants, that many times there is no reliable correspondence between the meaning (idea) and the signifier (word protected under the main word), and the communicative context plays a crucial role in this.

Context plays a crucial role

Indeed, according to the linguistic environment in which those who make the semantic relationship in the text develop, the results obtained will be. The context exerts a determining influence on the realization of the linguistic correlations typical of hypernyms and hyponyms.

For example, if the relationship between the words is made by individuals who handle a colloquial fishing jargon of a town “x”, there will be specific words from that area that may be related to the hypernym in question. Hypernym meaning and examples

Following the order of ideas of the previous paragraph, if we take the same correlation to another distant location, to another group of fishermen, even when they speak the same Spanish, their jargon presents variants that differentiate the correlations between the hypernym and the hyponyms.

Examples Hypernym meaning and examples

Here is a compilation of hypernyms with four hyponyms for each:

  1. – Ship: destroyer, frigate, oil tanker, ferry.
  2. Dog: Mastiff, Greyhound, Poodle, Pitbull.
  3. – Insect: wasp, ant, fly, mantis.
  4. – Bird: sparrow, nightingale, greenfinch, dove.
  5. – Flower: rose, daisy, petunia, carnation.
  6. – Book: dictionary, novel, manual, notebook.
  7. – Writer: translator, poet, essayist, novelist.
  8. – Automobile: car, bus, tourism, truck.
  9. – Legume: lentils, beans, peas, beans.
  10. – Letter: alpha, beta, delta, efe.
  11. – Road: street, sidewalk, alley, avenue.
  12. – Mammals: human, dog, bear, cat. Hypernym meaning and examples
  13. – Press: daily, weekly, magazine, pamphlet.
  14. – Month: January, April, March, July.
  15. – Cereal: wheat, rice, barley, oats.
  16. – Number: cardinal, two, ordinal, five.
  17. – Furniture: table, bench, armchair, chair.
  18. – Citrus: orange, lime, lemon, mandarin.
  19. – Tool: hammer, screwdriver, pliers, spanner.
  20. – Dance: rock and roll, merengue, salsa, tango.
  21. – Color: green, yellow, blue, red.
  22. – Family: brother-in-law, cousin, son, grandfather.
  23. Fruit: banana, banana, apple, strawberry.
  24. – Finger: thumb, ring finger, index finger, little finger.
  25. – Canid: jackal, dog, wolf, fox.
  26. – Home: house, apartment, dwelling, hut.
  27. Vegetables: lettuce, cabbage, onion, eggplant.
  28. – Tuber: potato, squash, sweet potato, tigernut.
  29. – Fuel: gasoline, diesel, diesel, oil .Hypernym meaning and examples
  30. Sword: katana, saber, rapier, cutlass.

As a linguistic expert with a comprehensive understanding of structural semantics and a deep appreciation for the intricacies of language, I find it imperative to delve into the concept of hypernyms and their role in facilitating effective communication. The concept of hypernyms, as described in the provided text, serves as a linguistic umbrella encompassing more specific terms, thereby allowing for broader comprehension in conversations and explanations.

The term "hypernym" itself, etymologically derived from the prefix "hyper" meaning "above" or "above others," and the suffix "-ónimo" meaning "name," indicates its function as a term that stands above others. This structural semantics phenomenon has been present in language long before it was formally recognized in the mid-20th century, highlighting its intrinsic importance to communication.

The linguistic resource of hypernyms presents several characteristics elucidated in the text, and I will provide a detailed analysis:

  1. Inherent Features in Hyponyms:

    • Each hyponym sheltered under a hypernym contains the basic features of the hypernym. This interrelation generates links that connect and relate these terms to each other, creating a hierarchical structure within language.
  2. Anaphora Avoidance:

    • Hypernyms play a crucial role in written production by saving unnecessary repetitions of words. Unlike anaphoras, which result from a lack of knowledge of language, hypernyms contribute to the enrichment of writing by preventing redundant word usage.
  3. Communication and Cognitive Performance:

    • Hypernyms contribute to the development of communicational brilliance, a vital aspect of intelligence. They serve as tools for speakers, facilitating the address of large groups without neglecting minorities, ensuring a well-rounded communication process.
  4. Dual Role of Hypernyms:

    • A noteworthy aspect is that a hypernym can also be a hyponym at the same time, indicating the hierarchical relationships formed between certain words. For instance, the word "fruit" is a hypernym encompassing various fruits but is also a hyponym of the word "food."
  5. Semantic Evolution from Meaning to Signifier:

    • The progression from a general idea (meaning) to specific words (signifiers) is a characteristic of hypernyms. This dynamic relationship between meaning and words is crucial, and the communicative context plays a pivotal role in establishing reliable correspondences.
  6. Contextual Influence:

    • The linguistic environment or context in which semantic relationships develop influences the results obtained. Hypernyms and hyponyms may vary based on the communicative context, as exemplified by different dialect variants in Spanish.

The provided examples of hypernyms with four hyponyms each further illustrate the diverse applications of this linguistic concept across various domains, ranging from nature (e.g., "Bird: sparrow, nightingale, greenfinch, dove") to everyday objects (e.g., "Furniture: table, bench, armchair, chair"). These examples highlight the versatility of hypernyms in organizing and categorizing language.

In conclusion, the concept of hypernyms is a fundamental aspect of linguistic analysis and semantic relationships, offering a structured framework for effective communication and comprehension across diverse contexts.

Hypernym examples meaning with Characteristics (2024)


Hypernym examples meaning with Characteristics? ›

In this case, a hypernym is the name of a broader category of things. Dog, for example, is a hypernym for dachshund, Chihuahua, and poodle. Superhero is a hypernym for Batman and Spider-Man. A word can't be a hypernym if there are no other words that can be classified under it.

What are the characteristics of hyponym? ›

A hyponym is a word or phrase whose semantic field is more specific than its hypernym. The semantic field of a hypernym, also known as a superordinate, is broader than that of a hyponym. An approach to the relationship between hyponyms and hypernyms is to view a hypernym as consisting of hyponyms.

What is the hypernym of animal? ›

"Animal" is a hypernym of "mammal." It is a group that includes mammals and other kinds of animals, such as birds and reptiles. This relationship isn't limited to one level up or down, so "animal" is also a hypernym of "dog," and "dog" is a hyponym of "animal."

What are the 20 examples of Hyponyms? ›

100 examples of hyponyms
  • tree and oak.
  • citrus and orange.
  • music and opera.
  • colour and blue.
  • pokemon and pikachu.
  • male and man.
  • shape and round.
  • toy and doll.

What is the meaning of Hyperonymy? ›

a word whose meaning includes a group of other words: The first hypernyms for dog that come to mind would be animal or pet.

What is the hyponym of animal? ›

Hyponyms refer to classifications or taxonomies of natural phenomena or human artifacts. Animal is a superordinate and that pig, cat, dog and cow are hyponyms of animal.

What is hyponym examples and meaning? ›

Hyponymy is a relation to a more generic word. A hyponym can be part of a group of words on a similar level that can all be replaced by the same hypernym. For example, pigeon, crow, eagle and seagull are all hyponyms (co-hyponyms) of bird (their hypernym). In turn, bird is a hyponym of animal.

Is flower a hypernym? ›

For instance, flower is a hypernym of daisy and rose. Adjective: hypernymous. Put another way, hypernyms (also called superordinates and supertypes) are general words; hyponyms (also called subordinates) are subdivisions of more general words.

What are examples of Hyponyms in fruit? ›

In our previous example, 'apples', 'bananas', 'oranges', 'grapes', 'peaches' and 'melons' are hyponyms of the hypernym 'fruit'. In simple terms, think of a hypernym as the big group or category, and hyponyms as the specific members or types within that group.

What is the hyponym of a bird? ›

For example: pigeon, crow, eagle, and seagull are all hyponyms of bird, their hypernym; which itself is a hyponym of animal, its hypernym.

What are examples of hypernyms and their Hyponyms? ›

Animal is the hypernym of bird and dog; bird and dog are the hyponyms of animal. Bird and dog are co-hyponyms of each other. Bird is the hypernym of robin and parrot; robin and parrot are the hyponyms of bird.

What is a hyponym of a flower? ›

In linguistics and lexicography, hyponym is a term used to designate a particular member of a broader class. For instance, daisy and rose are hyponyms of flower.

What is a hypernym to a hyponym? ›

Hyponyms and hypernyms are both terms that come under the lexis/semantics section of English language. A hypernym describes a more broad term, for example cutlery, or dog. A hyponym is a more specialised and specific word, for example: spoon would be a hyponym of cutlery and labrador would be a hyponym of dog.

What is the origin of the word hypernym? ›

From hyper- (“over”) +‎ -nym (“name”). From Ancient Greek roots; compare Latinate “superordinate term”.

What is an example of a hom*onym? ›

hom*onyms can include both hom*ophones (same sound, different meanings) and hom*ographs (same spelling, different meanings). Examples: “bank” (financial institution) and “bank” (side of a river), “lead” (a soft, malleable metal) and “lead” (to guide or direct).

What is a synonym for hyponym? ›

Definitions of hyponym. a word that is more specific than a given word. synonyms: subordinate, subordinate word.

What are the functions of Hyponyms? ›

Vocabulary Enrichment: hom*onyms expand our vocabulary by providing multiple meanings for a single word.

What is the definition of a hyponym '? ›

Meaning of hyponym in English

a word whose meaning is included in the meaning of another word: "Horse" is a hyponym of "animal".

What is the role of Hyponyms? ›

Hyponymy plays a fundamental role in semantics by capturing the hierarchical relationship between words, specifically nouns. It allows us to understand how a more specific term (hyponym) is related to a more general term (hypernym).

What words are Hyponyms? ›

a term that denotes a subcategory of a more general class: Compare superordinate ( def 4 ). “Chair” and “table” are hyponyms of “furniture.”


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